Principle 0: Error. We are all wrong a lot. Your (and my) perceived level of certainty on all positions is too high...and that's after we've corrected for this. Pretenses at knowledge about what will happen in the future make levels of certainty about other topics seem positively well-founded.
Principle 1: Feedback. The only path to success is to (a) try something (b) expect it to fail/suck (c) measure the results of the failure (d) try something different (e) repeat from b. This applies to building things, doing new things, and doing old things that other people did, but you didn't.
Principle 2: Growth. Since ALL personal values can be purchased for $, and $ can be purchased for hours...wealth is the only social metric. Because of this, economic growth is the god-metric. Economic growth is nearly equivalent to innovation + trade. It is (now) nearly unrelated to manufacturing. The baseline prediction on economic growth should be Singulitarian.
Principle 3: Game Theory. Game theory explains damn near everything. Most common exposure to game theory via evolution (how life came to be, and how it changed) and economics (the study of how people with different preferences/skills/and goals can trade to both be happier). In trade-based systems, he who has the scarcity wins. Scarcity is non-existent in capital, very rare in actual natural resources, and quickly ameliorates (usually) in skills. The only scarcities that persist in a freedom-based economy are (a) we haven't yet solved the tech problem, and (b) ones created by the government. Therefore, the primary way to make money in the world is to get governments to create artificial scarcities: like IP, or contract enforcement scarcity. Exit is the only path that avoids scarcity.
Principle 4: Monkeybrains. Your brain doesn't work how you think it does. Introspection tells you what you're evolved to believe, not how your mind actually works. People are basically monkeys, a collection of semi-independent brain-modules all chasing their independent (modular) preferences with a light layer of consciousness sitting on top, pretending to make decisions, rather than rationalizing the bubbled-up decisions. The top two modules in terms of power tend to be sex and status. The model of the future, past, and present selves as distinct entities with distinct preferences is hugely powerful.
Principle 5: Ethics. It's an evolved capacity of people. It's complicated. It's important. All ethical reasoning about the self is massively self-biased. I believe (on insufficient evidence) that it's an evolved capacity designed to keep the stupid short-term monkeybrain in check by giving good game-theory solutions (in the ancestral environment) which result in long term benefit. If pressed, I'm roughly a virtue ethics + golden rule + ethical egoism foundations guy, with heavy consequentialism at other levels, and a deep and abiding hatred of deontology.
Principle 6: Epistemology. Radical empiricism. 2+2 is inferred from observation. A = A is inferred from observation. Induction is the core of ALL knowledge.
Principle 7: Education. In learning, Motivation is 90% of everything. He who wants to win almost universally has a motivation to learn more than he who wants to learn. Practice is 90% of everything else. Talent multiplies practice, and improves motivation. Practice consists of practicing the right thing, practicing the thing right, practicing enough, and feedback. Feedback is almost universally the worst handled. Teachers get only levers in the motivation space, in showing the student what to practice, and in feedback...and in the 1% not already accounted for.
Principle 8: Methodological individualism. "We" is a bogus concept. There is me, and there is you, and our interests and preferences are different. Saying: "we want this" is wrong. Saying: "this is good for us" is wrong. When costs, especially opportunity cost are included, it's super-wrong. Normally, it's done to trick you into barbarous behaviour that you would never consider if you didn't have some convenient way of labeling the other as "not us". School Rallies, Patriotism, and Racism are all basically the same game...attempting to trick folks into dividing themselves into categories, and self-defining themselves into manipulable groups.
Principle 9: Ancient Insights. Great Eastern Insight™: Self-definition may be useful, and indeed necessary as a youth. As an adult, most pain is psychological, and it comes from one's own psychological attachment to one's own concept of self. On ethics: the Great Aristotelian Insight™: One's self is one's character; one's character is one's habits. Ancient Ethical Insight™: If you wouldn't like it done to you, don't do it to others (roughly, and considering varying preferences).